Washington State Supreme Court Upholds Ruling Declaring Florist Must Service ‘Gay Weddings’

OLYMPIA, Wash. — The Washington State Supreme Court has unanimously upheld a ruling against a florist accused of discrimination by providing a referral for a regular customer’s request for the creation of floral arrangements for his same-sex ceremony rather than fulfilling the order herself.

“Discrimination based on same-sex marriage constitutes discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. We therefore hold that the conduct for which Stutzman was cited and fined, in this case—refusing her commercially marketed wedding floral services to Ingersoll and Freed because theirs would be a same-sex wedding—constitutes sexual orientation discrimination under the WLAD (Washington Law Against Discrimination),” the court wrote.

It asserted that requiring the Christian-identifying florist to provide the floral arrangements to decorate the event does not infringe her religious rights because the law applies to everyone and serves the state’s interests.

“We also hold that the WLAD may be enforced against Stutzman because it does not infringe any constitutional protection,” the panel stated. “As applied in this case, the WLAD does not compel speech or association.”

“And assuming that it substantially burdens Stutzman’s religious free exercise, the WLAD does not violate her right to religious free exercise under either the First Amendment or article I, section 11 because it is a neutral, generally applicable law that serves our state government’s compelling interest in eradicating discrimination in public accommodations,” it asserted.

As previously reported, in 2012, Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson leveled Baronelle Stutzman of Arlene’s with a lawsuit as he claimed that she violated the law by not fulfilling the order for the same-sex event.

Stutzman had been approached by one of her faithful customers, Robert Ingersoll, a homosexual, as he wanted her to supply the floral arrangements for his upcoming ceremony with his partner, Curt.

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“We had gone to Arlene’s for many years and enjoyed her service. She did a great job for us, so it was just natural for us to go there to have her do our flowers,” Freed told KUOW radio.

Stutzman stated that she politely explained that she would not be able to help in regard to the event, but referred him to three other florists that could be of assistance.

“I just took his hands and said, ‘I’m sorry. I cannot do your wedding because of my relationship with Jesus Christ,’” Stutzman told reporters.

But after Ingersoll decided to post on Facebook about the matter, controversy arose on both sides of the issue—both for and against Stutzman. The florist said that she received a number of threatening and angry comments.

“It blew way out of proportion,” Stutzman explained. “I’ve had hate mail. I’ve had people that want to burn my building. I’ve had people that will never shop here again and [vow to] tell all their friends.”

Weeks later, Attorney General Bob Ferguson issued Stutzman a letter advising that she must accommodate homosexual ceremonies or be subject to a lawsuit and heavy fines. He included with his letter a form that offered Stutzman the opportunity to recant and agree to comply with the law. She refused, and was subsequently met with a discrimination suit.

But the Christian legal organization Alliance Defending Freedom (ADF) contended that Ferguson’s actions were inappropriate since he never received a complaint, but rather filed on his own volition. It also filed a motion asking that Ferguson and the ACLU—which filed a separate suit—be prohibited from attacking Stutzman on a personal level.

In January 2015, Benton County Superior Court Judge Alex Eckstrom—while throwing out a charge that accused Stutzman of directing her business to violate the state’s anti-discrimination laws—ruled that the florist may be held personally responsible for the incident.

A month later, Eckstrom granted summary judgment to Stutzman’s opponents, agreeing that she had committed an act of discrimination. The court also ordered Stutzman to provide full service to same-sex ceremonies, which includes not only accepting the order, but also delivering to the homosexual celebration, and assisting with the specific arrangements and decoration on-site.

She appealed to the Washington Supreme Court, which unanimously upheld the lower court ruling on Thursday.

“Rob Ingersoll and I have been friends since very nearly the first time he walked into my shop all those years ago,” Stutzman said in a statement following the decision. “There was never an issue with his being gay, just as there hasn’t been with any of my other customers or employees. He just enjoyed my custom floral designs, and I loved creating them for him.”

“But now the state is trying to use this case to force me to create artistic expression that violates my deepest beliefs and take away my life’s work and savings, which will also harm those who I employ,” she continued. “I’m not asking for anything that our Constitution hasn’t promised me and every other American: the right to create freely, and to live out my faith without fear of government punishment or interference.”

Stutzman now plans to appeal her case to the U.S. Supreme Court.


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  • TwoRutRoad

    “… live out my faith without fear of government punishment or interference.” Where does something like that end? It could be (and often is) used as an excuse for almost anything.

    • Tangent002

      It is a general argument against any anti-discrimination protections when you get right down to it.

      Businesses of public accommodation simply do not have the same rights as individuals.

  • Grace Kim Kwon

    Bad American judges. Americans persecute the Christians for being Christian in the 21st century. Racist Americans had more morality than perv Americans.

    • Michael C

      Do you believe that worshiping false gods is a “sin?”

      • Grace Kim Kwon

        Yes it is a sin. Today’s West forces worshiping of sexual immorality. Insane. You guys need Christian values to be normal again. Mankind have never faced the reign of Sodomy yet, except in Sodom and Gomorrah. Everyone knows what happened to them and the surrounding region. Should the Ex-christian West be the cause of the planet’s collapse? So sad. Man should never give up the Truth. Why do you guys persecute the good Christians in the former Christendom unless the culture has become utterly evil? Why don’t you go after Muslim florists or Jewish florists but only target Christians? The judges committed a racist crime.

        • Tangent002

          Has a Muslim or Jewish florist refused to service a same-sex wedding?

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Yes. Secular Americans persecute the Christians alone just because Christians are gentle. Washington State should ask Saudi Arabia the US friend to make flower arragement for their gay weddings.

          • Tangent002

            Please provide the name of the Muslim or Jewish florist that refused to service a same-sex wedding

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Go to any Muslim and Jewish florists in Washington State asking for gay wedding flowers.

          • Bob Alien

            Go spew hatred in gay hating countries, dear…

            PS- That’s not here.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            You Americans should stop enslaving the Christians. God will punish the USA. You guys are nudists and mentally ill to force Christians to serve homosexuality.

          • Bob Alien

            You’re ONLY a slave to your own HYPERBOLE…. seek help.

            PS Lying is a sin… you should STOP.

          • Tangent002

            So you have no specific case.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            There are. Do your work. They just refuse and they are spared unlike the white Christians.

          • Tangent002

            I’m not doing your homework for you. You made the claim, it is up to you to provide supporting evidence.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            You look for the news because there are. Besides, it’s wrong for anyone to force Christians to bake for the homosexual ceremonies.

          • johndoe

            Then they shouldn’t be in business to start with dear. They don’t have that as an option unless they want to break the laws of America. Get it? Stop insulting real Americans….not very christian to do so.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            It is lawless and wrong for America to force people serve sexual depraved sins against God’s truth and a clear human conscience. Americans force their values everywhere on Planet Earth. They must be beaten at this point, no matter how rich and powerful they are. Christian American fathers taught mankind not to submit to rich perv villain slave owners like today’s secular Americans. The legacy is forever. Lawless US Sodom must bend, not Christians, because Christians hold the truth and US Sodom is on the wrong side.

          • Ambulance Chaser

            So, you have no examples. Got it.

        • Michael C

          Yes it is a sin.

          Okay, so you admit that worshiping false gods is a “sin.”

          Non-discrimination laws protect people who are guilty of the “sin” of worshiping false gods from being refused housing, employment, and public accommodations.

          Non-discrimination laws have protected what you call “sin” since their inception, over half a century ago.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            America’s non-discrimination laws are wrong and a human rights abuse. Faith is individual’s choice. Christians are free from serving paganisms; therefore Christians must be free from serving sexual immorality, too. Christians never bake Hindu cakes, therefore never homosexual cakes, either. Christians sell bread to anyone.

          • Michael C

            America’s non-discrimination laws are wrong

            Most of us who actually live in the United States support legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

            Have a nice day.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            This century America has changed. Your forefathers never intended it for upholding sexual depravity. You guys are Non-Americans.

          • Tangent002

            The forefathers thought slavery was okay, too.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            For Democrats. They want to enslave Christians instead of colored people this century.

    • George O’Donnell

      Who’s human rights are being abused in a homosexual wedding?

      • Grace Kim Kwon

        All normal people’s. God has condemned homosexuality as sin. Homosexuality cannot be a mariage but is a sinful lifestyle. Homosexual wedding is the ritual that celebrates and seals the sin of homosexuality; serving it or helping it or attending it is a sin. USA is a human rights abuser this century by forcing people to serve homosexual weddings against the Word of God and against the human conscience. People should be able to live out the Holy Bible. Sin has no equal rights with anything.

        Western white people have become weird by having prolonged prosperity – rich people seeking warped amusement by bending God’s truth and poor people’s normal conscience. Typical, but deadly. The West needs Christianity to be sane and normal and moral and free. Secular white people became weird by applying racial equality upon sexually sinful people, but they never lack mental slaves. Racism never ends in sinful secular nations. The victims in the West are the normal Christians this century.

        • Camera_Shy

          Wow. First of all, who are you to say what a “normal” person is?

          Secondly, you wrote: “forcing people to serve homosexual weddings against the Word of God” That’s right, because we make no laws respecting ANY religion in USA. i.e. when I start a business, I keep my religious beliefs private and I do not use my religious beliefs to discriminate against people by picking and choosing who I want as customers and who I do not (at least when it comes to the items referred to in the Civil Rights Act).

          Think about it, not everyone in the USA believes in the same god that you do, and yet we allow that to happen because we are the land of the free. For you, or anyone, to say “I’m going to discriminate against those who do not share my beliefs” is in direct conflict with the fundamental reasons this country was founded.

  • Michael C

    A part of me feels bad for this woman. I fear that she was given incredibly bad legal counsel from an organization that had already lost several cases just like this one. That organization, Alliance Defending Freedom, has been depositing donation checks into their bank accounts left and right while fund raising off of this woman’s legal troubles. This organization actually encourages business owners to defy non-discrimination laws that protect people from being refused service just because they’re gay. They’re not just ambulance chasers, they’re causing the accidents.

    And the real issue here is whether or not businesses should be permitted deny housing, employment, and public accommodations to people just because they’re gay. That’s the law that this woman violated. Is that okay? Who here believes that it’s okay for a business to fire an employee just because they’re gay? Who here believes that a landlord should be permitted to refuse housing to a person just because they’re gay. Who here believes that it’s okay for stores and restaurants to deny service to a customer just because they’re gay? Christians have been protected from this type of discrimination for decades.

    • Tangent002

      “They’re not just ambulance chasers, they’re causing the accidents.”

      Perfect!

    • Tangent002

      Who here believes that it’s okay for a business to fire an employee just because they’re gay? Who here believes that a landlord should be permitted to refuse housing to a person just because they’re gay. Who here believes that it’s okay for stores and restaurants to deny service to a customer just because they’re gay?

      Grace Kim Kwon does.

      • Grace Kim Kwon

        Stop bullying. You guys are wrong. What gays are demanding Christians is to celebrate homosexuality. Christians never build immoral businesses or decorate homes with immorality or serve dog meats in restaurants or bake immoral cakes. Christians sell bread to anyone but do not make bread that celebrates homosexuality; there is huge difference.

        • Tangent002

          How can a cake be ‘immoral’? How can bread ‘celebrate homosexuality’?

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Gay wedding cake is immoral by existence. You secular Americans have no loyalty to anything noble and do not understand religious people.

          • Tangent002

            There is no material difference.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            The meaning. It’s like a cake that bears mockery of Islam for the Muslims and Nazi cakes for the Jews or “Death to America” slogan cakes for the patriots. The Washington State judges are evil.

          • Tangent002

            If there is a specific message written on the cake, yes, any baker could refuse. A wedding cake generally doesn’t have anything written on it except maybe the names of the couple.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Yes, but the purpose was known. It’s like driving someone to abortion clinics. If the purpose was known, true Christians would never drive to Planned Parenthood for the child to get killed. Service refused.

          • Michael C

            (the purpose of a cake is to be eaten. that is all)

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Making a gay wedding cake is like making cakes for Satanic rituals. USA should make laws to protect Christians from secular oppressors. You guys are just entertaining yourselves with bending the Christians’ clear conscience. You don’t care because you hold no beliefs. It’s so unfair to Christians in USA.

          • Tangent002

            A cake for a Satanic ritual is protected by federal law, actually, since Satanism is a religion.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            That’s what’s wrong about secular West and secular USA. It is a human right to reject immorality and evil.

          • Tangent002

            If you cannot serve all people equally then you shouldn’t run a business of public accommodation.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Baking gay wedding cake is a wrong thing and people should be free to reject doing wrong things.

          • Tangent002

            People can, businesses can’t. You have no right to run a business. You are granted a privilege based on your promise to obey the appropriate laws.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Businesses should not do things that are wrong. Baking gay wedding cake is doing something immoral, and people can refuse to do it. Otherwise, it’s violating against the truth and human conscience.

          • Tangent002

            Are you okay with a business that refuses to serve an interracial marriage on religious grounds?

          • Ambulance Chaser

            Did it ever occur to you that different people might have differing opinions about what is “immoral” and “evil?”

          • Camera_Shy

            “That’s what’s wrong about secular West and secular USA. It is a human right to reject immorality and evil.”

            That is because you (a member of one religious group) don’t get to say what evil is for everyone. Your beef is with secularism, not the USA.

          • SFBruce

            The US already recognizes freedom of conscience in our constitution, and the 1964 Civil Rights Acts and title VII forbid discrimination in employment, housing, public accommodations and other areas. So, you’re covered. That said, religious freedom guarantees are extended to everyone, not just those who belong to the Christian sect you believe is the true one, and while freedom of conscience is an important fundamental right, like all rights, it isn’t absolute.

          • meamsane

            …..In celebration of the event it was made for!

          • Tangent002

            A business has no, ahem, business dictating how their product is used. I could go out and buy a wedding cake right now and just eat it myself, give it to my dog, or throw it off a roof.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            The immoral purpose was known to the bakers; therefore it cannot be done. Do secular Americans have a conscience? No. That’s why you don’t understand.

          • meamsane

            Well, halloween costumes celebrate halloween!
            Confetti clebrates parades!
            So why can’t bread clebrate Homosexuality?

          • Tangent002

            Well, Wonder Bread is fabulous!

        • Camera_Shy

          No one is asking, or inviting, the florist to celebrate their wedding. What is happening here is a business owner is refusing a customer (discriminating) based on a sexual ideology. That is prohibited under the current Civil Rights Laws.

      • bowie1

        Since the employment wouldn’t most likely be about their sexuality it may not come up. I once worked at a place where a salesman was suspected to be gay but I shook his hand anyway. Nevertheless he didn’t stay long and soon found employment at the Simpsons department store head office.

    • Becky

      What utter rubbish. No one was denying anything from homosexuals “just because they’re gay”. As Stutzman clearly explained, Ingersoll patronised her shop for years without an issue. It wasn’t until he asked her to partake of his “same-sex marriage” via her services…that’s where she drew the line…it’s against her religious convictions. According to the US Constitution, she was/is well within her rights to uphold her religious beliefs.

      • Michael C

        Ingersoll patronised her shop for years without an issue.

        Whether or not Baronelle always discriminates against gay customers is irrelevant to the fact that in this case, she did in fact refuse service to a customer on the basis of their sexual orientation.

        It wasn’t until he asked her to partake of his “same-sex marriage” via her services

        Nobody asked Arlene’s Flowers to “partake” in their wedding (whatever that means). A customer requested a service that a business advertised to the general public. The business chose to refuse to provide this service on the basis of the customer’s sexual orientation, a legally protected characteristic in the state of Washington.

        According to the US Constitution, she was/is well within her rights to uphold her religious beliefs.

        The U.S. Constitution does not provide public accommodations with the right to refuse service to members of the general public on the basis of the business owner’s personal religious beliefs.

        If it did, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 would be considered unconstitutional.

    • Gold Eagle

      “for decades”?

      Tell us just how many decades gay marriage has been legal in the US.

      • Michael C

        “for decades”? Tell us just how many decades gay marriage has been legal in the US.

        a) I think you need to re-read that sentence. I said “Christians have been protected from this type of discrimination for decades.” While the marriages of gay couples have been legally recognized in some parts of the U.S. for over a decade, this fact is irrelevant to the conversation.

        b) “Sexual orientation” has been a protected characteristic in employment, housing, and public accommodations in some parts of the U.S. for over forty years.

        c) The law that Barronelle broke had nothing to do with whether or not the marriages of gay couples were legally recognized by the government. Even if Robert and Curt couldn’t be legally married, Arlene’s Flower’s actions would have still been against the law. Discrimination on the basis of a person’s sexual orientation has been illegal in the state of Washington for over a decade.

  • SFBruce

    This outcome was totally predictable. Washington state law is absolutely clear: it’s illegal for a public accommodation to discriminate based on sexual orientation. Robert Ingersoll simply expected Ms. Stutzman to sell him a product she routinely sells to straight couples every day. Her response, to this long time customer she claims to like, was that his money was just too dirty for her clean hands. The fact that she delivered this news “politely” only makes it worse. As Michael C has pointed out, the Alliance Defending Freedom are the real culprits in this. They had to know it was virtually impossible for her to prevail. Ms. Stutzman won’t see a penny of the funds they’ll raise on her back.

  • jjgrandisland

    This is really good news. I am sure conservatives are going crazy this morning but in the end this is what differentiates the USA from Syria.

  • InTheChurch

    My aunt bought a gas station. She got heat about selling alcohol at her store from the church people. She decided to stop selling alcohol. And the people in the church stopped pressuring her. She still had people come into her store to buy candy, soda, gas and snacks. She did well. She just did not make money off the alcohol. The customers knew they did not sell alcohol so they went elsewhere. But she still sold cigarettes so that is still funny to me. She kept her faith, did what was right in her head and she still made money.
    Here is what I’m saying, this florist can keep her store but needs to change how and what she sells. Make pre made arrangements and that is it. What is on the floor is what sells. No special orders or special arrangements. Or, she can just close shop. Same with the bakers, make a cake with no writing or wedding toppers. Let the party take it home and finalize the cake.
    Fellow Christians, don’t come after me for saying this. We have to find ways to please everyone in the public square and still keep our moral standards.

    • Grace Kim Kwon

      Sounds nice, but it still gives room to bad guys to bully good people by limiting Christians’ creativity. The West should give up its immoral inclination and give everyone freedom; that is the right thing. Inclination to immorality is a slavery.

    • Pat B

      These businesses can farm out special orders to people want to do special decorations. And those people can always say their schedule is full.

      • InTheChurch

        From what I read, she did make the referrals and that was not good enough.

    • This style 10/6

      Or this florist could just stop discriminating and serve customers.

    • Michael C

      I agree with you that, if a business offers a product or service to the general public, that product or service cannot be denied on the basis of a characteristic protected by local law. If there is a product or service that a business owner would be unwilling to offer to all of the general public with respect to all governing laws, they are free to not offer that product or service at all.

      I would just like to mention that none of the bakers who refused service to gay customers were ever asked for any sort of writing or wedding toppers on the cakes. The cakes themselves were no different in any way from what the businesses would’ve gladly provided to other (not gay) customers.

  • bowie1

    Why would they want to sue her when they had a friendly relationship with her up until that time? Some friends!

    • Michael C

      It could also be asked why someone would illegally refuse a regularly offered product or service to a friend.

      • Grace Kim Kwon

        It’s illegal to make Christians violate the Word of God and the clear conscience.

        • Tangent002

          A business has no religion.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            EVERYTHING has religion and conscience. Liberal USA’s religion is sexual immorality.

          • Tangent002

            Nope. A business has no conscience since it is only a piece of paper and a tax ID number.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            You are wrong. Religious persecutions for the sake of upholding immorality must be abolished in the Western nations.

          • Tangent002

            Good luck with that.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            There is no luck. God’s providence will bring justice upon the Sodomic West.

          • Tangent002

            Yeah. I’m not holding my breath.

          • Grace Kim Kwon

            Read Romans 1 and John 3 and repent of your sins to get saved.

          • William of Glynn

            Your deity has already sent Tony Perkins a warning by flooding his home because Perkins promotes hatred, bigotry, and persecution of the gay community. Heed the warning.

          • Tangent002

            I have no sins, thank you.

          • TwoRutRoad

            There’s no such thing as sin, Gracie. Except, maybe my ex-wife’s cooking.

          • Michael C

            Business owners do have religious beliefs however.

            I don’t believe that Arlene’s Flowers should be required to offer any product or service to the general public if that product or service is in opposition to the business owner’s personal and/or religious beliefs. If a business owner is unwilling to offer wedding services to the general public without illegally discriminating, they’re free to not offer those services at all. Nobody can force a florist to offer wedding services. I’m pretty sure you agree with this.

          • Tangent002

            Certainly. The case is against Arlene’s Flowers, not Baronelle Stutzman. It is the discriminatory actions of the business that are illegal under Washington state law.

      • bowie1

        Friends are usually more understanding and respectful.

        • Michael C

          I agree.

    • Garden of Love

      The Victim Game. Get her into big trouble, then play like they are the ones being persecuted.

  • William of Glynn

    I do believe that I read recently that Southern Poverty Law Center has now designated Alliance Defending “Freedom” as an anti-gay hate group.

    • Tangent002

      Yes. As Michael C. points out below, they actively encourage Christian business owners to refuse service to the LGBT community.

  • Becky

    Part of the reason Trump was elected was because he promised to protect Christians from these lawsuits. We’ll see if he makes good on that promise or if his allegiance truly belongs to the homosexuals .

    • Camera_Shy

      You say that like there are no homosexual christians. There are, you know.

  • http://www.bibleversusconstitution.org/ Ted R. Weiland

    When will this lady’s fellow Christians become courageous enough to identify and address the genesis of the atrocity being committed against this lady and others? Until we do, we can expect today’s immoral whirlwind to only increase in intensity.

    “[B]ecause they have transgressed my covenant, and trespassed against my law … they have sown the wind, and they shall reap the whirlwind….” (Hosea 8:1,7)

    Had the constitutional framers (like their 17th-century Colonial predecessors) established government and society upon Yahweh’s moral law (including Deuternomy 22:5, Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13), there would be no homosexual agenda in America because no sodomite, lesbian, or transgender would dare risk exposing themselves to to petition government for their “rights.”

    For more on how Yahweh’s immutable moral law applies and should be implemented today, see free online book “Law and Kingdom: Their Relevance Under the New Covenant.” Click on my name, then our website. Go to our Online Books page and scroll down to title.

    Then find out how much you REALLY know about the Constitution as compared to the Bible. Take our 10-question Constitution Survey in the right-hand sidebar and receive a complimentary copy of a book that EXAMINES the Constitution by the Bible.

    • SFBruce

      As I’m sure you know, we do not have a theocracy based on your minority religious beliefs. Instead, we have a secular government which acknowledges freedom of conscience, even for extreme views such as yours. But that same freedom extends to everyone, including the majority of us who would find your views morally repugnant and completely at odds with Jesus’ teachings. I sincerely hope I’ve misunderstood what appears to be the clear meaning of your comment. If that’s the case, please correct me.

      • http://www.bibleversusconstitution.org/ Ted R. Weiland

        SFBruce, thanks for your input.

        Nothing in my post has anything to do with legislating someone’s conscience or forcing conversion on anyone, an impossibility to begin with.

        What it does concern is the question: What is fickle finite man best governed by: 1) Other finite men’s fickle (always immoral) edicts, or 2) Yahweh’s
        immutable/unchanging perfect law and altogether righteous judgments (Psalm 19:7-11)?

        I would hope that you would agree with me on option #2. Of course, it’s your choice. But if not #2 then you’re opposed to what it was that once made America great.

        America was once great but not for the reason most people believe it was. In fact, quite the opposite–a classic example of Isaiah 5:20, calling evil good and good evil.

        Yahweh, God of the Bible, blesses nations (makes them great and prosperous) when they look to Him as their sovereign and thus His moral law as the standard for government and society, per Deuteronomy 4:4-8, 28:1-14,
        etc. Consequently, America’s greatness was the result of the 17th-century Christian Colonial governments of, by, and for God established upon His unchanging moral law:

        Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835: “They [the 17th-century Colonials] exercised the rights of sovereignty; they named their magistrates, concluded peace or declared war, made police regulations, and enacted laws as if their allegiance was due only to God. Nothing can be more curious and, at the same time more instructive, than the legislation of that period; it is there that the solution of the great social problem which the United States now presents to the world is to be found [in perfect fulfillment of Deuteronomy 4:5-8, demonstrating the continuing veracity of Yahweh’s law and its accompanying blessings, per Deuteronomy 28:1-14].

        “Amongst these documents we shall notice, as especially characteristic, the
        code of laws promulgated by the little State of Connecticut in 1650. The
        legislators of Connecticut begin with the penal laws, and … they borrow their provisions from the text of Holy Writ … copied verbatim from the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy.…” (Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 2 vols. (New York: NY: The Colonial Press, 1899) vol. 1, pp. 36-37)

        On the other hand, Yahweh curses nations who reject His sovereignty and
        replace His law with their own man-made surrogates. Thus, America began
        to be cursed (by God’s long suffering only incrementally at first) when the 18th-century founders replaced the 17th-century Colonial governments with their own humanistic government of, by, and for the people based upon capricious Enlightenment traditions. Without repentance for these sins of sedition our complicity therein, it was inevitable that America would find herself teetering on the precipice of moral depravity and destruction.

        For more regarding these two polar opposite forms of government, see
        online Chapter 3 “The Preamble: WE THE PEOPLE vs. YAHWEH” of “Bible Law vs. the United States Constitution: The Christian Perspective.” Click on my name, then our website. Go to our Online Books page, click on the top entry and scroll down to Chapter 3.

  • Amos Moses

    New Registry Allows Engaged Same-Sex Couples To Choose Which Christian Florist To Put Out Of Business

  • Camera_Shy

    What’s yahweh?

    You wrote: “But if not #2 then you’re opposed to what it was that once made America great.”

    No, what has always made America great is that we allow people freedom of conscience. But SFBruce already pointed that out, and you danced around (away from) it.

  • Sharon

    Are there not more than one florist shops in the Tri-Cities, WA? There is some dirty workings going on in this case and every other case that involves businesses, their Constitutional rights as a business, and the same-sex community. Some how, I get the impression that the same-sex community wants to destroy businesses and people that are of a faith-based community. The agenda seems to be not equality but superiority.